What is the explanation for how the solar nebula was cleared of debris quizlet?

The solar nebula was cleared of debris through a process called accretion. At first, the solar nebula was composed of small dust particles. Over time, these particles collided and stuck together, resulting in larger and larger clumps.

As the clumps got larger and their gravity increased, they were able to attract even more particles, resulting in a growth process called accretion. Eventually, these particles clumped together to form the Sun, planets, and other objects in the solar system, which cleared the nebula of debris.

A significant amount of dust was also ejected from the system, which helped clear the remaining debris. In addition, some debris – such as asteroids and comets – were swept out of the system by the gravitational effects of the larger bodies.

These processes all contributed to the clearing of the solar nebula.

How did the solar nebula get cleared away?

The solar nebula was cleared away over time due to gravitational interactions between the material in the disk and the protosun at its center. As the disk began to spin faster, its matter was compressed, making it denser and more gravitationally attractive.

This increased gravity pulled the material into the protosun, releasing energy in the form of heat and light, and clearing the disk. As the protosun continued to grow and pull in the material, the disk began to thin out until eventually it was entirely gone.

The heat and light released by the protosun during this process is what eventually ignited the sun, marking the beginning of the solar system.

What does the solar nebula theory explain?

Solar nebula theory is a scientific explanation for the formation of the Solar System and other planetary systems. It is the prevailing scientific theory of planetary formation, and suggests that all objects in the Solar System formed from a large, rotating cloud of interstellar dust and gas called a solar nebula.

According to this theory, the Solar System began when gravity caused clumps of gas and dust within the solar nebula to coalesce. As a result, the Sun and planets formed out of the condensing dust and gas.

The solar nebula theory is used to explain a variety of characteristics of the Solar System, such as why planets orbit in the same plane and in the same direction; why the orbits are more or less circular; the broad differences between the rocky inner planets and the gaseous outer planets; why the outer planets are farther from the Sun than the inner planets; and why gas giants are more massive than rocky planets.

Additionally, the theory explains why planets tend to have moons of their own, and why asteroids, comets, and other small bodies are located at the outer edges of the Solar System.

What happened to the solar nebula quizlet?

The solar nebula is the cloud of gas and dust from which the solar system formed about 4. 6 billion years ago. It is believed to have started off as a giant, diffuse cloud of material that gradually condensed to form the sun, planets, moons and other small bodies.

Over time, the solar nebula dissipated as the gas and dust were swept away due to gravity or the radiation from the newly formed sun. Eventually the solar nebula became too diffuse for it to continue to exist, and the solar system as we know it today was born.

What processes cleared the nebula away and ended planet building?

The process of star formation and subsequent evolution effectively cleared away the nebula of material leftover from the Big Bang and ended the process of planet building. When a star forms from the pressing together of dust and gas from a nebula, the so-called “protoplanetary disk” that used to make up the gas and dust later dissipates as a result of the intense radiation of the newly formed star.

This radiation breaks down the material into simpler components, and at the same time the star’s gravity pulls the material from the outer reaches inwards, causing the protoplanetary disc to disperse.

This dispersal of the protoplanetary disc removes the material that would have otherwise been used to create planets and other objects, effectively concluding the process of planet building.

Did a planet escape the solar system?

No, there has not been any planet that has definitively escaped the solar system. However, for a time in 2016, astronomers believed that a small, unnamed planet may have been on the edge of escaping.

This planet, dubbed Planet Nine, had been theorized since 2014 and due to its extreme distance from the Sun, it was thought that it may eventually escape the Sun’s gravitational pull. However, in 2017, further research determined that Planet Nine likely does not exist and that the outer edge of the solar system does not contain any rogue planets, meaning no planet has escaped.

So, due to the current understanding of the solar system, it appears that a planet has not escaped the solar system.

What first causes a nebula to shrink?

The first thing that causes a nebula to shrink is the exertion of pressure as gravity pulls the nebula inwards. The gravitational force of contraction is generated by the interaction of the stellar wind, UV radiation and the interstellar medium, leading to the inward acceleration of material towards the centre of the nebula.

This process of gravitational contraction causes the molecules and ions to pile up in a contracting cloud, causing its temperature to increase as gravity pulls the molecules closer together, further leading to further shrinkage of the nebula.

Additionally, the radiation pressure generated by large stars located near the centre of the nebula can also cause additional pressure and contribute to the shrinking of the nebula. Over time, these forces pull the nebula inwards until its density and temperature become so high that it can begin to fuse hydrogen atoms together, leading to the formation of a star.

Can a nebula be destroyed?

Yes, a nebula can be destroyed. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust in interstellar space and when it interacts with other objects in space, like stars and supernovas, it can be destroyed. Stellar winds from nearby stars, supernovae explosions, and the radiation from massive, young stars can all heat the material in a nebula to the point where it’s fully ionized, destroying the nebula.

In many cases, new stars, planets, and asteroids will form from the nebula material. So while the nebula may be gone, its remnants may still be visible in the form of a new star, planet, or asteroid.

What shape did the nebula flatten out into?

The nebula was molded by gravity into a flattened disk-like structure, known as a protoplanetary disk. This disk was composed of gas and dust, and the material within this disk would later form planets, asteroids, comets and other celestial bodies.

Many of the features of this disk are still seen in our solar system today. The inner region of the disk, now called the “asteroid belt,” contains the most objects and is composed mostly of rock and metal.

The outer region is composed mostly of gas, and is sometimes called the “Kuiper Belt” or the “trans-Neptunian region. ” Our solar system’s planets all formed in the protoplanetary disk, and have taken their shape and orbit from the structure of this disk.

What are the steps of the nebular theory?

The Nebular Theory is a widely accepted scientific model of how our Solar system was created. This theory, first proposed by Emmanuel Kant and developed by Pierre Laplace in 1796, explains the formation of stars, planets, and other objects in our Solar System.

The steps of this theory are as follows:

1. Molecular Condensation: Initially, a vast interstellar cloud of dust, gas, and other elements were present. This cloud contained many molecules such as hydrogen, helium and other molecules. Through gravity, these molecules began to condense and form a spinning cloud of gas and dust, called a “protostar”.

2. A Protoplanetary Disk Forms: As the protostar continued to spin, it created a rotating disk of gas and dust around it. This is known as the protoplanetary disk. Through collisions and gravitational attraction within this disk, small particles of dust and ice began to form small clumps, called planetesimals.

3. Planetesimals Collide and Grow: As the planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk continued to collide and grow, they eventually grew into protoplanets. These were larger clumps of dust and gas that eventually congealed into bigger and denser objects.

At the same time, the protostar was still accreting material from the protoplanetary disk and growing in size.

4. Protoplanet Migration: The protoplanets in the protoplanetary disk would have experienced migrational forces as they interacted with other planets, as well as the gravitational pull of the host protostar.

Through these forces, they would have moved away from or towards the protostar and other planets in the disk, leading to their ultimate trajectories around our solar system.

5. Final Accretion: As the protoplanets grew in size, they experienced further collisions and gravitational interactions resulting in the formation of our current planets. At the same time, leftover gas and dust would have been accreted by the Sun, forming the asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, and the Oort cloud.

The Nebular Theory is the accepted framework for how our Solar System came to be. It explains how an interstellar cloud of gas and dust formed a massive spinning disk of dust, ice, and gas, which eventually condensed into protoplanets, which would later coalesce into the planets, asteroids, dwarf planets, and other objects in our Solar System.

What do models suggest make up the clouds on hot Jupiters?

Models of the clouds found on Hot Jupiters suggest that they are composed primarily of silicate, iron, and corundum. These clouds form when elements such as carbon and oxygen, which make up the majority of the atmosphere of Hot Jupiters, condense into solid particles due to the extreme temperatures.

The iron and silicate that form the clouds then catalyze the formation of other elements such as aluminum oxides and corundum through additional condensation processes. Once these elements form, they form clouds that are visible to instruments that detect near-infrared radiation, which is the best way to observe Hot Jupiters.

The presence of the clouds is usually what gives these gaseous giants their orange and red colorations. These clouds can also cast shadows on the surface of the planet, creating changes in the surface temperature and providing additional information about the clouds and their composition.

What are hot Jupiters made of?

Hot Jupiters are extrasolar planets (or exoplanets) that are large, gaseous planets like Jupiter, located close to their star. Their proximity to their star means the temperatures are typically higher on these planets than on those further away.

The environment of a hot Jupiter is separate from that of a regular Jupiter, and the temperatures are hot enough to cause the gas giant to become a plasma.

The composition of these planets is largely similar to that of a larger gas giant, such as Jupiter or Saturn. They consist mostly of hydrogen and helium, with small amounts of various other molecules.

Many also have trace amounts of molecules like carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. The presence of these molecules suggests that the hot Jupiters may have formed further out from their star and then migrated inward due to gravitational disturbances from other celestial bodies.

These planets are too hot for life as we know it, but they give us an invaluable insight into the formation and evolution of other planetary systems. The study of hot Jupiters has provided us with a unique opportunity to gain a better understanding of the physics involved in the formation and evolution of our Solar System.

What is special about the orbits of hot Jupiters?

Hot Jupiters, named for the similarity in size to Jupiter, are extrasolar planets with very short orbital periods. These planets orbit their host stars in orbits of less than 10 days and are much closer to their host stars than what is seen for the Solar System’s gas giants.

The orbits of hot Jupiters are unique from other exoplanets because they are so close to their host star. This proximity makes them very hot, and often times even hotter than Venus. Their short orbits make them powerful in gravitational sway, affecting the stars and any planets orbiting more distant from the host star.

This can often lead to planets further out being “pushed” out of the system or into more eccentric orbits. Furthermore, they often have orbital inclinations larger than other exoplanets, as much as 90 degrees, meaning they are highly inclined with respect to the plane of their star’s equator.

This is quite unusual as many other planets have orbits that are close to the same plane as their host stars. Their existence has been a challenge to many planet formation theories, as well as the formation of the Solar System, because it is not well understood how they form in such close orbits.

How do we think hot Jupiters formed?

The precise origin of hot Jupiters is still uncertain however the most widely accepted theory is that the planets formed far out in the solar system, then migrated inward to their current, close-in orbits.

The process of migration is known as ‘type II migration’ and occurs when material in the disk surrounding the young star interacts gravitationally with the planet and transfers angular momentum to it, causing the planet to gradually move closer.

That being said, a number of formation mechanisms have been proposed, including gravitational scattering from passing stars, dynamical instabilities of existing planetary systems, and the Kozai-Lidov mechanism.

The idea of type II migration as an explanation for hot Jupiters was first proposed in 1996 and is generally considered to be the most plausible mechanism of formation. This explanation is further supported by recent observations of protoplanetary disks around other stars which have revealed evidence of planetary migration within minutes to centuries of the planets’ formation.

In addition, the fact that hot Jupiters are much less common beyond 30 astronomical units and typically have eccentric orbits also favours the type II migration theory. However, further exact mechanisms of migration and what triggers it are still subject to debate and need more theoretical and observational work to be understood.

What would a hot Jupiter look like?

A hot Jupiter is an extrasolar planet with a Jupiter-like mass but orbiting much closer to its star than Jupiter is to our Sun. These planets are significantly larger and more massive than Earth and can have orbital periods as short as a few days.

As a result, they are much warmer and brighter than Jupiter, appearing more like red-giant stars due to their intense heat and light. Their atmospheres are thicker than Jupiter’s and composed of clouds of hydrogen, helium, methane, and water vapor.

Hot Jupiters are usually blue in color with white mottling, due to the presence of high-altitude clouds composed of ammonium hydrosulfide. The surfaces of these planets can reach temperatures of up to 2000K, causing them to glow brightly in the night sky.

High-energy radiation in the form of X-rays, gamma-rays, and extreme ultraviolet light also contribute to their luminosity. The intense heat, in combination with their large size and mass, has resulted in strong winds and strong supersonic winds that circle the equator at speeds of up to 2000 km/h.

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