Approximately 30 – 40 percent of incoming solar radiation is absorbed directly by the atmosphere, primarily by gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and water vapor. This process is known as ‘atmospheric absorption’.
The rest of the incoming solar radiation is either reflected back into space by clouds, dust, and aerosols, or is absorbed by the surface of the Earth and its atmosphere. A fraction of terrestrial radiation is also emitted back into space, though the majority is absorbed by the atmosphere, resulting in further warming.
These interactions produce a complex energy balance in the Earth’s atmosphere that ultimately leads to the stabilizing influence of the climate.
What percentage of the sun’s energy that reaches Earth’s surface is absorbed by clouds?
The percentage of the sun’s energy that reaches Earth’s surface that is absorbed by clouds varies, depending on the type and thickness of the clouds, as well as the climatic conditions in the area. Generally, clouds absorb between 10-30% of the energy, though in areas with high cloud cover, the number can be as high as 50%.
Because clouds are made up of tiny water droplets, they are able to act as reflectors, reflecting a portion of the energy coming from the sun while absorbing the rest. Therefore, when clouds are thick and abundant, they can act as an effective shield to block sunlight and reduce the energy that actually reaches the surface.
Which of the following absorbs most incoming solar radiation quizlet?
Water absorbs the most incoming solar radiation out of all the elements currently present on Earth. This is due to its high heat capacity. This means water is able to absorb more heat than other elements on Earth, while also emitting and transferring less heat into the atmosphere.
Additionally, water is able to absorb long wave infrared radiation from the sun, transferring it into a form of energy which can be used for a variety of biotic and abiotic processes. Water is also able to store and reflect solar radiation, allowing it to warm slowly throughout the day rather than immediately when exposed to sunlight.
This slows the rate of global warming and provides other global benefits associated with having a cooler atmosphere. All of this is why water absorbs the most incoming solar radiation.
What is the total percentage of solar energy absorbed?
The total percentage of solar energy that is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and surface is around 47%. The majority of the solar energy (approximately 30%) is reflected back into space by clouds, particulates and other air molecules, while approximately 19% is absorbed by the atmosphere and the remaining 18% is absorbed at the Earth’s surface.
When these are combined, the total amount of solar energy that is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and surface reaches 47%.
Why does only 47% of the Sun’s energy reach Earth’s surface?
Only 47% of the Sun’s energy reaches Earth’s surface due to a number of factors. Firstly, a significant portion of the Sun’s energy is absorbed by the atmosphere, resulting in a 13% reduction of solar energy before it even reaches the ground.
Clouds and other atmospheric particles reduce the portion of incoming energy. Additionally, our planet’s albedo—or reflectivity—plays a role. Approximately 25% of the energy that reaches Earth’s surface is reflected back into space.
This is due to the reflective nature of clouds and the Earth’s surface itself. Finally, the planet’s curvature limits the amount of energy that can be received by the surface at any given time. Only 47% of the Sun’s energy is able to reach the ground due to this combined effect.
How much of the energy is absorbed by the water vapor clouds and dust in the atmosphere where it is converted into heat?
The exact amount of energy absorbed by water vapor clouds and dust in the atmosphere and converted into heat is largely determined by the temperature and humidity in the atmosphere. In general, water vapor is the most abundant and most important absorber of energy in the atmosphere.
It absorbs energy within a range of infrared frequencies and more efficiently absorbs radiation at higher temperatures. The atmosphere also contains suspended dust particles which absorb some of the energy as well, with the amount depending upon the composition of the particles and their size.
The overall amount of energy absorbed is also affected by the surface reflection and albedo of the atmosphere. In some cases, the atmosphere can reflect a significant amount of incoming solar radiation, meaning less energy is available for absorption.
In general, water vapor clouds and dust together absorb about two thirds of the incoming solar energy, with the balance scattered and reflected back into space.
Where does 90% of energy go during each energy transfer in an ecosystem?
In an ecosystem, energy is transferred from one organism to another and from one component of the ecosystem to another. During each energy transfer, 90% of the energy is lost to the environment in the form of heat.
This energy is absorbed by the environment, transferred within the environment, or radiated back out into space. Most of the energy is lost due to the fact that the energy source is ultimately finite, and so every time energy is transferred, some energy is dissipated in the process.
This is known as the ‘second law of thermodynamics’. This means that the energy is ultimately converted into a non-usable form such as heat and is ultimately lost to the system. The energy that remains in the ecosystem can be used to fuel the growth and development of organisms in the ecosystem, and can be used by plants to create food energy through photosynthesis.
Why does only 10% of energy flow from ecosystem to ecosystem?
Energy flow through an ecosystem is a complex process that can be affected by several factors, including the amount of light and heat available, the availability of nutrients and water, the presence of predators or other organisms, and the amount and type of vegetation.
In general, only about 10% of energy is transferred from one level of an ecosystem to the next. This is due to the fact that energy transfer between the different components of an ecosystem is relatively inefficient.
As energy is passed through the different organisms within an ecosystem, often in the form of food, some of the energy is used for the organism’s own growth and metabolic processes. This takes energy away from other organisms and directs it elsewhere, meaning that not all of the energy is passed on.
Additionally, many of the organisms within an ecosystem are not connected directly, and so energy does not move directly between these organisms.
In summary, only about 10% of energy is transferred between different levels of an ecosystem due to the relatively inefficient nature of energy transfer, as well as the fact that many of the entities within an ecosystem are not directly connected.
How much radiation is absorbed by clouds?
Clouds absorb radiation in the form of solar energy and infrared radiation. Solar energy is absorbed by clouds primarily in the visible range, while infrared radiation is absorbed in the short-wave and long-wave ranges.
Depending on the type of cloud, the amount of radiation absorbed can vary. For example, a low cloud will absorb more radiation than an optically thin mid-level cloud. Additionally, the particle size and composition of the cloud plays a role in how much radiation is absorbed.
Smaller particles tend to absorb more radiation than larger particles.
In general, thick clouds can absorb between 25-60% of solar energy, while thinner clouds tend to absorb 10-20%. Depending on the types of particles present in the cloud, infrared radiation can be absorbed in similar percentages.
Over the course of a day, the amount of radiation absorbed by clouds can also vary according to the time of day and the emissions in the atmosphere.
Overall, the amount of radiation that is absorbed by clouds is extremely variable and can depend on many factors. Therefore, it is difficult to provide an exact estimate of how much radiation is absorbed by clouds.
What is the ratio of radiated energy to absorbed energy?
The ratio of radiated energy to absorbed energy is determined by a material’s emissivity, which is a measure of how effectively it emits energy relative to a “perfect radiator” (such as a black body).
Emissivity can range from 0 (ineffective) to 1 (perfect radiator) and will depend upon the material’s properties, such as its temperature, wavelength, surface finish, and orientation. Generally, any material with an emissivity of 0.
9 or higher is considered to be a good radiator, although there are exceptions.
It is also important to note that the ratio of radiated energy to absorbed energy will also depend on environmental factors, such as the surrounding air temperature, humidity, and even altitude, as certain materials may be more effective radiators in one environment than in another.
For example, a material may have an emissivity of 0. 9 in a cooler environment, but an emissivity of 0. 7 in a warmer environment.
In conclusion, the ratio of radiated energy to absorbed energy is determined by a material’s emissivity and can vary widely based on the material’s properties and environmental conditions.
Do clouds absorb incoming radiation?
Yes, clouds can absorb incoming radiation. clouds are able to absorb incoming radiation in the form of shortwave energy, which is energy from the sun that comes in the form of ultraviolet (UV) rays, visible light, and infrared radiation.
When clouds absorb this radiation, it is eventually released back into the atmosphere as heat. This helps to regulate the temperature of the planet and is an important part of the global climate system.
It’s estimated that clouds can absorb up to 90% of the incoming solar radiation at any given time. Not only do clouds absorb incoming radiation, they also reflect a portion of it as well. Depending on the type of cloud, the amount of radiation it reflects can be relatively high or relatively low.
The conditions present when the cloud was formed and its altitude both affect the reflection rate. Clouds that reflect the most radiation are usually composed of ice crystals, while those that absorb the most radiation are usually made out of liquid water droplets.
What absorbs 20% of the sun’s energy?
The Earth’s atmosphere and surface absorb approximately 20% of the sun’s energy. Most of the sun’s energy is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere, which consists of gases like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide.
These gases interact with the sun’s energy in various ways, such as re-radiating and scattering the energy. Additionally, the Earth’s surface also absorbs 20% of the sun’s energy. This energy is used to warm the Earth’s surface, which in turn warms the air.
Hence, the Earth’s atmosphere and surface together absorb 20% of the sun’s energy.
What absorbs the most solar radiation?
The Earth’s atmosphere absorbs the vast majority of solar radiation that reaches it. The atmosphere is highly efficient at absorbing the types of radiation that are most important to living things – the visible light and even moreso the non-visible ultraviolet radiation that reach us from the Sun.
The atmosphere is able to absorb much of the solar energy before it ever reaches the surface of the planet. This absorption of radiation is due to the composition of the atmosphere. Chief among the gases that absorb the most solar radiation are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone.
Water vapor is the most efficient absorber, followed by ozone and then carbon dioxide. Together, these three gases absorb the most solar radiation and play an important role in providing us with a livable climate.
Does the sun hold 99% of the mass in the solar system?
No, the sun does not hold 99% of the mass in the solar system. According to estimates from NASA, the sun only accounts for about 99. 8% of the total mass in the solar system, with the remaining 0. 2% made up of the planets, their moons, asteroids, comets, and other small bodies.
This means that the total mass of the solar system is about one trillionth the mass of the sun. The planets, although much smaller than the sun, still contribute significantly to the overall mass of the solar system, with Jupiter making up most of that mass, followed by Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
This means that even though the sun is the largest body in the solar system by far, it is not responsible for the majority of its mass.
What objects make up 99% of our solar system?
The vast majority of objects in our solar system are made up of either rocks or gas. The four innermost planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are predominantly rocky. Beyond Mars at the asteroid belt, which contains millions of rocky bodies, there lies the gas giants of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Together these four planets represent 99% of the mass of our solar system. Beyond the limits of Neptune is the Kuiper belt that is composed of icy, rocky objects including the dwarf planet Pluto. In addition to the planets, moons, and icy bodies, our solar system also has comets, asteroids, dust, and components of the interstellar medium.
All of these objects combine to create a complex and diverse environment that makes up our solar system.