The albedo of the Earth is the measure of how much of the solar radiation is reflected back into outer space. On average, the Earth reflects about 30 percent of the total amount of incoming solar radiation back into outer space.
This is referred to as the planetary albedo. The albedo of the Earth varies from place to place and changes over time due to seasonal and climatic changes. Snow and ice, for example, are very good reflectors of sunlight and generally have a higher albedo value than other surfaces.
The lower the albedo value, the more solar radiation is being absorbed at the surface. The Earth’s albedo also changes depending on the type of aerosol or clouds present in the atmosphere. Aerosols and clouds can both increase or decrease the albedo of the Earth based on the composition and size of the aerosols and the thickness of the clouds.
Why does the albedo of Earth and its atmosphere average about 30 percent quizlet?
The albedo of Earth and its atmosphere averages around 30% because of the combination of the surfaces and materials that make up the Earth’s surface and atmosphere as a whole. The Earth’s surface is mostly composed of land and water, both of which have different albedos.
Land, especially vegetated and a variety of geological materials, has a low albedo, usually in the range of 10-15%. Water, however, has an albedo of about 30%, depending on the state of the water and the presence of particulates and microbial biomass.
Meanwhile, the atmosphere has an albedo of about 45%, mainly from clouds. Thus, when all of these are combined, the average albedo of the Earth and its atmosphere comes out to around 30%.
Which of the following gases absorbs solar radiation?
All of the gases in Earth’s atmosphere-water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrous oxide- absorb some amount of solar radiation. The most effective absorbers are water vapor and carbon dioxide, which together account for an estimated 50-85% of absorbed solar radiation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Water vapor is the most effective absorber, accounting for an estimated 50-60% of solar radiation absorption. Meanwhile, carbon dioxide accounts for 25-30% of absorption. Ozone and nitrous oxide are less effective absorbers but still contribute to absorption of solar radiation.
The combination of these gases is important for trapping heat in the atmosphere and allowing temperatures on the planet’s surface to remain relatively stable.
How many spheres are involved in the exchanges of energy and moisture that occur in Earth’s climate system quizlet?
There are a variety of spheres involved in the exchanges of energy and moisture that occur in Earth’s climate system. The most prominent spheres involved are the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.
The atmosphere is made up of the air that surrounds Earth, and it is integral to cycling energy and moisture. The hydrosphere is composed of all of Earth’s water bodies – oceans, lakes, rivers, and glaciers – and it transports energy and moisture around the globe.
The cryosphere includes frozen water such as snow, ice, and permafrost, and its large energy stores modify climate patterns. The biosphere is made up of all living organisms and their habitats, and it produces and consumes energy and moisture at a large scale.
Finally, the lithosphere is composed of Earth’s rocky surface and sub-surface features, and it plays a role in regulating energy and moisture. Together, all of these spheres interact to create the climate of our planet.
Why would marine organisms be an important part of climate change studies?
Marine organisms play an important role in climate change studies because they are both affected by and a contributing factor to climate change. Climate change can have a drastic impact on marine life, driving shifts in species composition, migration patterns, and abundance.
Marine organisms can act as indicators of climate change since they are sensitive to changes in habitat and water temperature. Studying them can provide valuable insight into how climate change is affecting the ocean, its ecosystems, and food webs.
This can help in the development of sustainable strategies to respond to the effects of climate change on the ocean. Marine organisms can also act as a source of greenhouse gases. Since water temperatures are rapidly increasing, many organisms are releasing large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, thereby further exacerbating the changes to the climate.
By understanding how and why these organisms are releasing these gases, we can gain more insight into how to mitigate and prevent climate change.
How many percent of solar radiation reaches the Earth?
Approximately 50% of the solar radiation that is received by the Earth is reflected back out into space, either by clouds or by the Earth’s surface. This is known as albedo, and is composed of both direct and diffuse reflections.
Therefore, of the total solar radiation that reaches the Earth, approximately 50% is reflected away, leaving the other 50% to be absorbed by the land, atmosphere, and oceans. This absorbed radiation plays an important role in the Earth’s climate and provides the energy for life on Earth.
What is the total percentage of solar energy reflected?
The total percentage of solar energy reflected depends on the surface where it is reflecting off of. Generally, solar energy is reflected at an angle of up to 10 degrees off the surface, meaning that around 10% of the solar energy is reflected back up into the atmosphere.
Additionally, light-colored surfaces reflect more light than dark surfaces, and smooth surfaces reflect more light than rough surfaces. Therefore, the total percentage of solar energy reflected can vary from 5-95%, depending on the type of surface.
Additionally, clouds, snow, ice, and other elements in the atmosphere can also influence the amount of solar energy reflected.
What makes up 99 percent of the solar system?
99 percent of the mass in the solar system is made up of the Sun. It contains 99. 86 percent of the solar system’s mass and is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. The remaining 0. 14 percent of the solar system’s mass is made up of the planets, asteroids, dwarf planets, comets, and other objects that orbit the Sun.
The four planets closest to the Sun—Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars—account for most of this 0. 14 percent, making up a combined 0. 11 percent of the solar system’s mass. The remaining material is distributed among the other four giant planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—their moons, comets, asteroids, and other debris.
What percentage (%) of the Sun’s energy that reaches the Earth is converted into wind energy?
While wind energy is a popular source of renewable energy, it should be noted that the majority of the Sun’s energy that reaches the Earth is not converted into wind energy. In fact, only a very small percentage of the Sun’s energy is converted to wind energy when it strikes the Earth.
According to scientists, less than 0. 02% of the energy that the Sun sends our way is converted into wind energy. This is because the Sun produces a wide spectrum of energy, and not all types are suitable for wind generation.
For instance, the vast majority of solar energy that reaches the Earth is in the form of light and heat. These types of energy are not useful for creating high-velocity winds that can be converted into usable electricity in a wind turbine.
Thus, it is safe to say that only a minuscule percentage of the Sun’s energy that reaches the Earth is converted into wind energy.
What absorbs the most solar radiation?
Water is known to absorb the most solar radiation out of any other substance, making it a key ingredient in many solar energy systems. The atmoic structure of water molecules makes it highly receptive to shortwave radiation from sunlight, allowing it to absorb the majority of it.
Because of this, most solar thermal power plants, or those which rely on solar energy to generate steam and turn turbines, are located in areas with lots of good quality water, such as seas and oceans.
Furthermore, water coats many of the surfaces on Earth, meaning that much of the light that reaches the planet is transfomed into thermal energy as it passes through liquid and solid water on the surface below.
This absorbtion of sunlight by water is also important to sustain plant life on Earth, offering this vital resource to them and providing the necessary energy for photosynthesis.
Is solar radiation absorbed by gases?
Yes, solar radiation is absorbed by atmospheric gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrous oxide. When these gases absorb the incoming solar radiation, they re-radiate it in all directions.
Some of this radiation is directed back out of the atmosphere and into space, while some is directed towards the Earth’s surface. This is an important part of Earth’s climate system, as it helps to regulate temperatures and keep things in balance.
Without the absorption of incoming solar radiation from atmospheric gases, temperatures on Earth would be much higher than they currently are.
Which gas is used to absorb UV radiation of sun?
The gas commonly used to absorb UV radiation from the sun is ozone. Ozone is a form of oxygen molecule containing three oxygen atoms, which is created naturally in the upper atmosphere. It acts as a protective layer, filtering out harmful UV radiation from the sun.
Ozone can be depleted by human activities such as chlorofluorocarbon emissions and fossil fuel combustion, so we need to ensure that we’re taking steps to reduce our impact on the ozone layer.
Which of the following gases are responsible for the 75% of the global warming effect?
The vast majority of global warming over the past several decades is attributed to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere, primarily from human activities. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil is the largest source of these emissions.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary contributor, accounting for approximately 75 percent of the overall global warming effect. Other significant GHGs include methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
Of these, methane is the second most important, contributing an estimated 17 percent. Nitrous oxide, CFCs, and HFCs account for the remaining 8 percent. Together, these gases are responsible for the majority of warming that has occurred since pre-industrial times.
Which radiations are absorbed?
Radiations that are absorbed by objects in the environment depend on the properties and composition of the material the radiation is passing through. Types of radiation that may be absorbed include infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, X-rays and gamma rays.
For example, infrared radiation is primarily absorbed by water vapor and gaseous molecules in the atmosphere, while ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere. Visible light is primarily absorbed by different types of material, such as paper, fabrics or objects painted in dark colours.
X-rays and gamma rays are primarily absorbed by dense materials, such as lead or concrete. Finally, cosmic rays are mainly absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere.
What absorbs radiation in the atmosphere?
Particles in the Earth’s atmosphere absorb radiation from the sun, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, infrared radiation, and visible light. The primary molecules that absorb radiation in the atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane.
Water vapor is particularly effective at absorbing radiation in the infrared range, which is why it helps to keep the Earth warm. Carbon dioxide is effective at absorbing both UV radiation and IR radiation, so it helps to cool the Earth by trapping some of the solar radiation that would otherwise reach the surface.
Ozone is effective at absorbing UV radiation, and like water vapor, helps to keep the Earth warm by absorbing radiation before it reaches the surface. Lastly, methane absorbs radiation in both the solar UV and IR ranges, and also helps to keep the Earth warm by trapping infrared radiation.
All of these molecules are crucial for absorbing and trapping radiation in the atmosphere, enabling the Earth to maintain a livable temperature.