The solar nebula theory does not state that the Earth’s atmosphere was formed after the Earth. The solar nebula theory states that the Earth formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud or “nebula” of dust and gas which was left over from the formation of the sun and other stars in the same birth cluster.
This theory suggests that the Earth’s atmosphere was built up slowly over time through crustal outgassing (volcanism) and later bombardment by comets and meteorites containing volatile substances.
What solar system characteristic is not explained by nebular theory?
Nebular theory is an explanation of how solar systems form, involving the condensation of a rotating interstellar cloud of dust and gas, and the subsequent aggregation of dust and gas into planetary bodies.
However, there are a number of characteristics of solar systems that cannot be explained by nebular theory. These include the origin of short-period comets, the formation of Kuiper belt objects, the origin of planets with high orbital eccentricities, and the presence of gas giants on widely separated orbits.
Additionally, it is unclear whether nebular theory adequately explains the unequal distribution of mass in the solar system, as well as the power law size distribution of asteroids. Thus, while nebular theory provides a useful framework for explaining the formation and evolution of a solar system, it is not able to explain all of the characteristics of a solar system.
What is the solar nebula theory?
The solar nebula theory is the scientific theory that explains the formation of the solar system and its planets. According to this theory, the solar system formed from a dense molecular cloud – known as a nebula – about 4.
6 billion years ago. As the nebula collapsed under its own gravity the center became denser and hotter. Over time, this collapse created a protostar – ultimately, the Sun – and a surrounding disc of gas and dust, the solar nebula.
As the solar nebula cooled and flattened, it fragmented into rings and more rings, due to angular momentum. This allowed planets and other objects to form through a process of accretion, where grains of dust collided and stuck together, gradually building up larger and larger bodies.
As the pieces got bigger, they swept up more material and grew larger still, until eventually we had planets and moons. Today, these protoplanetary systems can still be seen forming around young stars, providing evidence for the theory.
What are 3 pieces of evidence that support the solar nebula theory?
1. The gas and dust of the early Solar System are essentially the same composition as the Sun, which supports the idea that the Sun formed in the center of a disc of material, commonly referred to as the Solar Nebula.
2. Not only are the composition and temperature of the Sun and early Solar System comparable, but astronomers have been able to observe similar structures occurring around other stars, showing the formation of a similar gas nebula.
3. Meteorites that were part of the early Solar System have a pattern of isotopic composition that reveals how the material is related to the Sun. This further supports the idea that the Sun formed from the same primordial disc of material that gave rise to the planets.
What are the exceptions to the nebular theory?
The Nebular Theory is the current accepted model of the formation of our Solar System. It states that the Solar System began as a cloud of gas and dust particles which, due to its own gravitational attraction, formed into a spinning disc of gas and dust which then collected together to form the Sun, planets, moons, and other objects in our Solar System.
However, there are some exceptions to this theory which are yet to be fully explained.
Firstly, some of the Solar System’s planets are much farther away from the Sun than originally predicted by the theory. This could be due to the gravitational pull of other stars in the Milky Way which have pulled some of the planets away from its original location.
Secondly, while the theory states that most of the planets are orbits around the Sun, there are some exceptions such as Pluto, which is in an orbit that contributes to the gravitational attraction of Neptune.
Thirdly, scientists don’t yet know why certain planets have moons, or why some of the moons are so much larger than the others.
Finally, the distribution of comets and asteroids in the Solar System doesn’t appear to fit the Nebular Theory either. Some comets and asteroids appear to be much further away from the Sun than expected, and some may even exist outside of the Solar System.
Overall, while the Nebular Theory is accepted as the basis for the formation of our Solar System, there are still many questions left to answer. Scientists continue to investigate and research these exceptions, in the hopes of uncovering answers to some of these long-standing mysteries.
What evidence do astronomers have that supports the nebular hypothesis?
Astronomers have collected a variety of different evidence in support of the nebular hypothesis, which states that the Solar System formed from a rotating, flattened cloud of gas and dust. Firstly, the pattern of Solar System orbits around the Sun is consistent with models of the nebular hypothesis.
All of the planets orbit the Sun in the same plane and in the same direction. This suggests that each planet formed from a rotating disk-like structure.
Another form of indirect evidence for the nebular hypothesis comes from lunar rocks. Analyses of the oxygen isotopes in lunar rocks have revealed similarities between Moon and Earth which could only have developed if the same parent body had formed both of them.
This evidence shows that the Moon formed from the same rotating gas cloud.
Furthermore, the distributions of elements in the Solar System are consistent with the nebular hypothesis. The planets and asteroids span a range of chemical compositions, with the inner planets being much less volatile-rich than the outer planets.
This is indicative of different condensation temperatures in a nebular disk, which affects where different elements are able to condense.
Lastly, the Solar System contains the asteroid belts and the Kuiper Belt. These are two regions where left-over material of the original nebular disk has not been fully incorporated into planets. This provides further evidence that planets formed in the disk and were able to slowly grow by coalescing to form larger bodies.
Overall, astronomers have provided a great deal of evidence that supports the nebular hypothesis as an explanation for the formation of the Solar System.
What happened to the solar nebula quizlet?
The solar nebula is the cloud of dust and gas from which the Sun and its planets formed. It was a disc-like formation with a rotating, flattening, heat-filled disk of gas and dust. The disk was composed of clouds of gas and dust, made up of hydrogen, helium, and other elements.
The gas and dust eventually coalesced, forming planets and other celestial objects within the early solar system. The solar nebula gradually dissipated as the Sun and planets formed, and today little, if any, of it remains.
Why did the solar nebula heat up as it collapsed quizlet?
The solar nebula heated up as it collapsed due to the energy released when the particles of the nebula began to fall and move towards the centre. As the particles moved towards the center, they interacted with one another, increasing the overall kinetic energy within the system.
This energy release caused an increase in temperature, which increased further as the cloud continued to contract, intensifying gravitational attraction, which further increased the kinetic energy of the particles.
This, in turn, caused the temperature to continue to increase until eventually the cloud became hot enough for nuclear fusion to take place, causing the birth of our sun.